old skool vc++ 1.0

hey all,

i'm looking at some old code here and was wondering what the keyword PASCAL 
was for?

int PASCAL WinMain(HANDLE hInstance, HANDLE hPrevInstance,
    LPSTR lpszCmdParam, int nCmdShow)

thanks,
rodchar
0
rodchar (8)
6/24/2007 5:22:00 PM
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rodchar wrote:
> hey all,
> 
> i'm looking at some old code here and was wondering what the keyword PASCAL 
> was for?
> 
> int PASCAL WinMain(HANDLE hInstance, HANDLE hPrevInstance,
>     LPSTR lpszCmdParam, int nCmdShow)
> 
> thanks,
> rodchar

It is (was) a calling convention used with most Windows APIs.  As I 
recall, it means parameters are pushed onto the stack in the opposite 
order than the standard C convention.

Today it is defined as __stdcall

-- 
Scott McPhillips [MVP VC++]

0
Scott
6/24/2007 5:54:20 PM
After doing further research based on your reply I ran into yet another 
unfamiliar place. I was trying to read what sounded like a basic article but 
I think there may be some implied understanding involved.

Here's the article link:
http://blogs.msdn.com/oldnewthing/archive/2004/01/02/47184.aspx

After just reading the first few sentences I became lost:

The history of calling conventions, part 1
The great thing about calling conventions on the x86 platform is that there 
are so many to choose from! 
In the 16-bit world, part of the calling convention was fixed by the 
instruction set: The BP register defaults to the SS selector, whereas the 
other registers default to the DS selector. So the BP register was 
necessarily the register used for accessing stack-based parameters. 

So is there a place or article I can read that will help me understand this 
one? BP register? Huh?

thanks,
rodchar



> rodchar wrote:
> > hey all,
> > 
> > i'm looking at some old code here and was wondering what the keyword PASCAL 
> > was for?
> > 
> > int PASCAL WinMain(HANDLE hInstance, HANDLE hPrevInstance,
> >     LPSTR lpszCmdParam, int nCmdShow)
> > 
> > thanks,
> > rodchar
> 
> It is (was) a calling convention used with most Windows APIs.  As I 
> recall, it means parameters are pushed onto the stack in the opposite 
> order than the standard C convention.
> 
> Today it is defined as __stdcall
> 
> -- 
> Scott McPhillips [MVP VC++]
> 
> 
0
rodchar (8)
6/24/2007 10:43:00 PM
On Sun, 24 Jun 2007 15:43:00 -0700, rodchar
<rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:


>So is there a place or article I can read that will help me understand this 

You might read:

 http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/984x0h58(vs.71).aspx
 http://blogs.msdn.com/oldnewthing/archive/2004/01/08/48616.aspx

MrAsm
0
mrasm (715)
6/24/2007 10:56:11 PM
rodchar wrote:
> After doing further research based on your reply I ran into yet another 
> unfamiliar place. I was trying to read what sounded like a basic article but 
> I think there may be some implied understanding involved.
> 
> Here's the article link:
> http://blogs.msdn.com/oldnewthing/archive/2004/01/02/47184.aspx
> 
> After just reading the first few sentences I became lost:
> 
> The history of calling conventions, part 1
> The great thing about calling conventions on the x86 platform is that there 
> are so many to choose from! 
> In the 16-bit world, part of the calling convention was fixed by the 
> instruction set: The BP register defaults to the SS selector, whereas the 
> other registers default to the DS selector. So the BP register was 
> necessarily the register used for accessing stack-based parameters. 
> 
> So is there a place or article I can read that will help me understand this 
> one? BP register? Huh?

If you became lost perhaps you have never learned an assembly language? 
  Very old skool, but lots of fun.  Learn how computers really work!

The BP register (Base Pointer) saves a copy of the stack pointer on 
entry into a function.  So all parameters passed in the stack are 
accessed with BP plus an offset.

Articles on the x86 Intel architecture would be really dusty by now, but 
you can go straight to the source - Intel programmer's reference manuals:

http://www.intel.com/design/processor/manuals

-- 
Scott McPhillips [MVP VC++]

0
Scott
6/25/2007 1:36:31 AM
On Sun, 24 Jun 2007 15:43:00 -0700, rodchar
<rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:

>After doing further research based on your reply I ran into yet another 
>unfamiliar place. I was trying to read what sounded like a basic article but 
>I think there may be some implied understanding involved.
>
>Here's the article link:
>http://blogs.msdn.com/oldnewthing/archive/2004/01/02/47184.aspx
>
>After just reading the first few sentences I became lost:
>
>The history of calling conventions, part 1
>The great thing about calling conventions on the x86 platform is that there 
>are so many to choose from! 
>In the 16-bit world, part of the calling convention was fixed by the 
>instruction set: The BP register defaults to the SS selector, whereas the 
>other registers default to the DS selector. So the BP register was 
>necessarily the register used for accessing stack-based parameters. 
>
>So is there a place or article I can read that will help me understand this 
>one? BP register? Huh?

The 16-bit stuff I'd just ignore. The 32-bit stuff can be useful,
especially when debugging, and to that end, see:

"Matt's Just Enough Assembly Language to Get By."
http://www.microsoft.com/msj/0298/hood0298.aspx 
http://www.microsoft.com/msj/0698/hood0698.aspx 

For a lot more detail, there is:

The Art of Assembly Language
http://webster.cs.ucr.edu/


-- 
Doug Harrison
Visual C++ MVP
0
dsh (2498)
6/25/2007 1:59:06 AM
question from aritcle:
Since so much of what I'll describe depends on the registers, a quick review 
of the commonly used Intel x86 register set is in order. In Figure 1, all 
registers are 32 bits except where noted. "Multipurpose" means the register 
can hold any arbitrary 32-bit value (for example, literal values, addresses, 
and bit flags). 

please forgive me for this ahead of time, but what is an Intel x86 register 
set in lamen's terms? what is a register?

"Doug Harrison [MVP]" wrote:

> On Sun, 24 Jun 2007 15:43:00 -0700, rodchar
> <rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:
> 
> >After doing further research based on your reply I ran into yet another 
> >unfamiliar place. I was trying to read what sounded like a basic article but 
> >I think there may be some implied understanding involved.
> >
> >Here's the article link:
> >http://blogs.msdn.com/oldnewthing/archive/2004/01/02/47184.aspx
> >
> >After just reading the first few sentences I became lost:
> >
> >The history of calling conventions, part 1
> >The great thing about calling conventions on the x86 platform is that there 
> >are so many to choose from! 
> >In the 16-bit world, part of the calling convention was fixed by the 
> >instruction set: The BP register defaults to the SS selector, whereas the 
> >other registers default to the DS selector. So the BP register was 
> >necessarily the register used for accessing stack-based parameters. 
> >
> >So is there a place or article I can read that will help me understand this 
> >one? BP register? Huh?
> 
> The 16-bit stuff I'd just ignore. The 32-bit stuff can be useful,
> especially when debugging, and to that end, see:
> 
> "Matt's Just Enough Assembly Language to Get By."
> http://www.microsoft.com/msj/0298/hood0298.aspx 
> http://www.microsoft.com/msj/0698/hood0698.aspx 
> 
> For a lot more detail, there is:
> 
> The Art of Assembly Language
> http://webster.cs.ucr.edu/
> 
> 
> -- 
> Doug Harrison
> Visual C++ MVP
> 
0
rodchar (8)
6/25/2007 2:49:06 AM
rodchar wrote:
> question from aritcle:
> Since so much of what I'll describe depends on the registers, a quick review 
> of the commonly used Intel x86 register set is in order. In Figure 1, all 
> registers are 32 bits except where noted. "Multipurpose" means the register 
> can hold any arbitrary 32-bit value (for example, literal values, addresses, 
> and bit flags). 
> 
> please forgive me for this ahead of time, but what is an Intel x86 register 
> set in lamen's terms? what is a register?

A register is a storage element, much like memory but located within the 
CPU.  It is very fast storage because of its intimate connection to the 
arithmetic/logic unit and to other registers. Some registers may have 
built in capabilities to shift and perform other primitive operations.

-- 
Scott McPhillips [MVP VC++]

0
Scott
6/25/2007 4:34:26 AM
On Sun, 24 Jun 2007 19:49:06 -0700, rodchar
<rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:

>question from aritcle:
>Since so much of what I'll describe depends on the registers, a quick review 
>of the commonly used Intel x86 register set is in order. In Figure 1, all 
>registers are 32 bits except where noted. "Multipurpose" means the register 
>can hold any arbitrary 32-bit value (for example, literal values, addresses, 
>and bit flags). 
>
>please forgive me for this ahead of time, but what is an Intel x86 register 
>set in lamen's terms? what is a register?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_register

-- 
Doug Harrison
Visual C++ MVP
0
dsh (2498)
6/25/2007 4:35:57 AM
how far will i have to go back in order for this to make sense? what's the 
best way to relate this stuff to what i think i understand and have some work 
experience in c#.net?

"Doug Harrison [MVP]" wrote:

> On Sun, 24 Jun 2007 19:49:06 -0700, rodchar
> <rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:
> 
> >question from aritcle:
> >Since so much of what I'll describe depends on the registers, a quick review 
> >of the commonly used Intel x86 register set is in order. In Figure 1, all 
> >registers are 32 bits except where noted. "Multipurpose" means the register 
> >can hold any arbitrary 32-bit value (for example, literal values, addresses, 
> >and bit flags). 
> >
> >please forgive me for this ahead of time, but what is an Intel x86 register 
> >set in lamen's terms? what is a register?
> 
> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_register
> 
> -- 
> Doug Harrison
> Visual C++ MVP
> 
0
rodchar (8)
6/25/2007 5:03:00 AM
On Sun, 24 Jun 2007 22:03:00 -0700, rodchar
<rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:

>how far will i have to go back in order for this to make sense? what's the 
>best way to relate this stuff to what i think i understand and have some work 
>experience in c#.net?

Your original question was about the PASCAL macro. Calling conventions for
native code have no relevance in .NET, unless perhaps you're trying to
write P/Invoke declarations. If you want to understand it anyway, you need
to have a basic understanding of how functions are called at the assembly
level, including how arguments are passed, which is typically through
registers and/or on the stack, return addresses are stored, stack frames
are specified, etc. Since you've subsequently asked what a "register" is,
I'd say you need to start with Assembly Language 101.

-- 
Doug Harrison
Visual C++ MVP
0
dsh (2498)
6/25/2007 5:38:45 AM
thanks everyone for some direction. regarding my original post as i kept 
trying to trace back to gain some understanding i kept reading something that 
would lose me, usually the first few sentences of an article. I think I have 
enough information to go on for now.
rod.

"Doug Harrison [MVP]" wrote:

> On Sun, 24 Jun 2007 22:03:00 -0700, rodchar
> <rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:
> 
> >how far will i have to go back in order for this to make sense? what's the 
> >best way to relate this stuff to what i think i understand and have some work 
> >experience in c#.net?
> 
> Your original question was about the PASCAL macro. Calling conventions for
> native code have no relevance in .NET, unless perhaps you're trying to
> write P/Invoke declarations. If you want to understand it anyway, you need
> to have a basic understanding of how functions are called at the assembly
> level, including how arguments are passed, which is typically through
> registers and/or on the stack, return addresses are stored, stack frames
> are specified, etc. Since you've subsequently asked what a "register" is,
> I'd say you need to start with Assembly Language 101.
> 
> -- 
> Doug Harrison
> Visual C++ MVP
> 
0
rodchar (8)
6/25/2007 12:17:01 PM
PASCAL == _stdcall.  The word "PASCAL" is now a noise word representing obsolete code and
should be removed from all files and replaced by an appropriate word like WINAPI or
CALLBACK, both of which are __stdcall.

Here's the deal:

In a __cdecl linkage (the normal default), arguments are pushed on the stack in
right-to-left order, a CALL is executed, and upon return from the CALL, the stack pointer
is incremented by the number of bytes which were pushed (stacks grow from high memory to
low memory, so "push" decrements the stack pointer and "pop" increments it:

	int f(int a, int b, int c) { return a+b+c; }

	f(1,2,3)
	push 3
	push 2
	push 1
	call f
	add esp, 0x0C  // = 12, three 4-byte ints

	f:    push ebp
	      mov ebp, esp
	     
	the stack is now
	
	EBP + 16:	3    // c
	EBP + 12:	2    // b
	EBP + 8		1    // a
	EBP + 4		return address
	EBP:		old EBP

	the code is therefore

		mov eax, DWORD PTR[EBP+8]
		add eax,  DWORD PTR[EBP+12]
		add eax, DWORD PTR[EBP+16]

	finally, we return
		mov  esp, ebp
		pop  ebp
		ret

In a __stdcall, a platform-specific faster call mechanism is used.  In this case, the
nmber of parameters must be fixed at compile time, and the parameters are cleaned up the
callee:

	int __stdcall f(int a, int b, int c);

	push  3
	push  2
	push  1
	call     f
	....next line of code

Note there is no code to increment the stack pointer to remove the parameters

	f:  push ebp
	    mov  ebp, esp
	    ...add instructions as above
	    mov  esp, ebp
	    pop   ebp
	    ret  0x0C

Here, the ret instruction cleans off the parameters.  Note that it takes 1 CPU clock cycle
(350picoseconds on a 2.8GHz machine) to both pop the return address and strip the
parameters.
					joe



On Mon, 25 Jun 2007 05:17:01 -0700, rodchar <rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:

>thanks everyone for some direction. regarding my original post as i kept 
>trying to trace back to gain some understanding i kept reading something that 
>would lose me, usually the first few sentences of an article. I think I have 
>enough information to go on for now.
>rod.
>
>"Doug Harrison [MVP]" wrote:
>
>> On Sun, 24 Jun 2007 22:03:00 -0700, rodchar
>> <rodchar@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote:
>> 
>> >how far will i have to go back in order for this to make sense? what's the 
>> >best way to relate this stuff to what i think i understand and have some work 
>> >experience in c#.net?
>> 
>> Your original question was about the PASCAL macro. Calling conventions for
>> native code have no relevance in .NET, unless perhaps you're trying to
>> write P/Invoke declarations. If you want to understand it anyway, you need
>> to have a basic understanding of how functions are called at the assembly
>> level, including how arguments are passed, which is typically through
>> registers and/or on the stack, return addresses are stored, stack frames
>> are specified, etc. Since you've subsequently asked what a "register" is,
>> I'd say you need to start with Assembly Language 101.
>> 
>> -- 
>> Doug Harrison
>> Visual C++ MVP
>> 
Joseph M. Newcomer [MVP]
email: newcomer@flounder.com
Web: http://www.flounder.com
MVP Tips: http://www.flounder.com/mvp_tips.htm
0
newcomer (15974)
7/1/2007 2:18:02 AM
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Hello, I have an old computer, a VPR Matrix 180R, and i want to rip its guts out and put new hardware in. The only problem is i have literally no idea where to begin. I want to get a new motherboard but i dont know what is compatable with this system. My current motherboard specs are; Manufacturer:Intel Corp. Model:D845EBT Version:AAA92334-304 NorthBridge: Intel i845E Rivision E0 CPU: Intel Pentium 4 CPU 1.80 GHz CPU Socket: 478mPGA 5 pci 1 agp slot I want to buy a new motherboard and then a new processor, as well as ram and if i have to a hard drive and a PCI-E gra...

How to add ON_UPDATE_COMMAND_UI and ON_COMMAND in vc.net?
Hi, In my app, there is a toolbar in a dialog. I want to add ON_UPDATE_COMMAND_UI and ON_COMMAND message map for toolbar buttons with some wizards. This can be archieved easily in vc6, but how to do it with vc.net? Thank you very much. WizardLee "WizardLee" <WizardLeeCN@hotmail.com> wrote in message news:uu37VDKcFHA.1456@TK2MSFTNGP15.phx.gbl... > > In my app, there is a toolbar in a dialog. > I want to add ON_UPDATE_COMMAND_UI and ON_COMMAND message map for toolbar > buttons with some wizards. > This can be archieved easily in vc6, but how to do it with v...

Access Denied to mscrm 3.0 after upgrade
I have had this happen twice now. Has anyone seen this error? I get the following message when I type in http://locallhost on the CRM server machine: Microsoft CRM Unhandled Error Details: Server Error in '/' Application. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Exception from HRESULT: 0x80048306. Description: An unhandled exception occurred during the execution of the current web request. Please review the stack trace for more information about the error and where it originated in the code. Exception Details: System.Runtime.InteropServ...

how to get software from old PC to new PC
I have a very old PC running Windows XP and an old version of Office Small Business 2002. Currently I have upgrated to Office Standard 2007. I want to by a new PC running Windows 7 64-bit. I have the original set up disks for Office Small Business 2002 and a couple of upgrade disks. Can I take the disks I have and apply them to the new computer? Sure you can but you might want to run the Win7 upgrade advisor first and verify the Office 2002 is even compatible with Widows 7. "JTC" <JTC@discussions.microsoft.com> wrote in message news:834AB8BF-26F9-4D73-B74...